Joel migdal strong societies and weak states pdf
Strong Societies and Weak StatesPart I. Introduction: 1. The state-in-society approach: a new definition of the state and transcending the narrowly constructed world of Rigor; Part II. Rethinking Social and Political Change: 2. A model of state-society relations; 3. Strong states, weak states: power and accommodation; Part III.
State in Society
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Why have some states struggled to fashion state-society relations, neutralise opposition, gain predominance, and achieve social control, whereas others have been strong in this regard? This book presents a model for understanding state capabilities in the Third World based on state-society relations. The distribution of social control in society that emerges as a result of this conflict between societies and states is the main determinant of whether states become strong or weak. Levels of state social control are reflected in three indicators: compliance, participation and legitimation. These are used by state and non-state organisations alike to seek social control.
After the ostensible decline of the state in the post-Cold War neo-liberal order of a unipolar world, which viewed the state as a problem and not a solution, the widespread globalization meme in the early 90s was that the state would wither away. The problem of state weakness and failure is thus seen to be at the heart of a worldwide systemic crisis that constitutes the most serious challenge to global stability in the new millennium. Whereas prior to the 11 September attacks on the United States, the focus was largely on humanitarian intervention in weak or failed states, following the attacks, the focus shifted from humanitarianism to security threats. However, viewing state failure and state-building in pure security terms, as has been the case since the beginning of the Global War on Terror in countries like Afghanistan and Iraq, is too narrow and fails to tackle the problem it aims to address. When combined with local factors, such as multiplicity of sovereignties created by warlords and regional states, domestic patronage politics, and the need to maintain stability brought by international intervention among others, it can, instead, perpetuate state weakness, which, in certain situations, might even lead to state collapse if not managed well.