Humanism and the culture of renaissance europe pdf
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The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the Middle Ages. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism , derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras , who said that "Man is the measure of all things. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the very first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto. As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch ; the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting ; and gradual but widespread educational reform. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy , and in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo , who inspired the term "Renaissance man".
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Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe. In this updated edition of his classic account, Charles Nauert charts the rise of humanism as the distinctive.
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Humanism and the culture of Renaissance Europe
Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity , at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The term humanism is contemporary to that period, while Renaissance humanism is a retronym used to distinguish it from later humanist developments. Renaissance humanism was a response to what came to be depicted by later whig historians as the "narrow pedantry" associated with medieval scholasticism. This was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis , today known as the humanities : grammar , rhetoric , history , poetry , and moral philosophy. Early Italian humanism, which in many respects continued the grammatical and rhetorical traditions of the Middle Ages, not merely provided the old Trivium with a new and more ambitious name Studia humanitatis , but also increased its actual scope, content and significance in the curriculum of the schools and universities and in its own extensive literary production.