Handbook of disinfectants and antiseptics pdf
Disinfectants and Antiseptics
Mohamad Hamad Formulating Antiseptic Disinfectant Items
Louis Operations, St. Antiseptics and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a variety of topical and hard-surface applications. A wide variety of active chemical agents biocides are found in these products, many of which have been used for hundreds of years, including alcohols, phenols, iodine, and chlorine. Most of these active agents demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; however, little is known about the mode of action of these agents in comparison to antibiotics. This review considers what is known about the mode of action and spectrum of activity of antiseptics and disinfectants. The widespread use of these products has prompted some speculation on the development of microbial resistance, in particular whether antibiotic resistance is induced by antiseptics or disinfectants. Known mechanisms of microbial resistance both intrinsic and acquired to biocides are reviewed, with emphasis on the clinical implications of these reports.
A sound cleaning and sanitization program is needed for controlled environments used in the manufacture of Pharmacopeial articles to prevent the microbial contamination of these articles. Sterile drug products may be contaminated via their pharmaceutical ingredients, process water, packaging components, manufacturing environment, processing equipment, and manufacturing operators. Current Good Manufacturing Practices cGMPs emphasize the size, design, construction, and location of buildings and construction materials, and the appropriate material flow to facilitate cleaning, maintenance, and proper operations for the manufacture of drug products. When disinfectants are used in a manufacturing environment, care should be taken to prevent the drug product from becoming contaminated with chemical disinfectants as a result of the inherent toxicity of the disinfectants. The requirements for aseptic processing include readily cleanable floors, walls, and ceilings that have smooth and nonporous surfaces; particulate, temperature, and humidity controls; and cleaning and disinfecting procedures to produce and maintain aseptic conditions.