Protective relays application guide book
“Protective Relays Application Guide” by GEC MeasurementsIn electrical engineering , a protective relay is a relay device designed to trip a circuit breaker when a fault is detected. Microprocessor-based digital protection relays now emulate the original devices, as well as providing types of protection and supervision impractical with electromechanical relays. Electromechanical relays provide only rudimentary indication of the location and origin of a fault. By combining several functions in one case, numerical relays also save capital cost and maintenance cost over electromechanical relays. Important transmission lines and generators have cubicles dedicated to protection, with many individual electromechanical devices, or one or two microprocessor relays. The theory and application of these protective devices is an important part of the education of a power engineer who specializes in power system protection. The need to act quickly to protect circuits and equipment often requires protective relays to respond and trip a breaker within a few thousandths of a second.
PROTECTIVE RELAYS Application Guide GEC ALSTHOM
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Many Expert Systems for intelligent electronic device IED performance analyses such as those for protective relays have been developed to ascertain operations, maximize availability, and subsequently minimize misoperation risks. This module is to provide the facility of intelligently maintaining the knowledge base of PRAY through the prior discovery of relay operations association rules from a novel integrated data mining approach of Rough-Set-Genetic-Algorithm-based rule discovery and Rule Quality Measure. The developed PRAY runs its relay analysis by, first, validating whether a protective relay under test operates correctly as expected by way of comparison between hypothesized and actual relay behavior. In the case of relay maloperations or misoperations, it diagnoses presented symptoms by identifying their causes. This study illustrates how, with the prior hybrid-data-mining-based knowledge base maintenance of an Expert System, regular and rigorous analyses of protective relay performances carried out by power utility entities can be conveniently achieved.
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The relay is a well known and widely used component. Applications range from classic panel built control systems to modern inrefaces between control microprocessors and their power circuits or any application where reliable galvanic separation is required between different circuits. Altough considered to be a relatively simple component , the electromechanical relay and its technology is complex and often misundestood. The earliest electrical relays were developed in the s, as people began to recognize that such switches could be extremely useful. Historically, electrical relays were often made with electromagnets, which continue to be used today, although for some applications solid state relays are preferred.